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Smallpox

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Disease Details

Incubation Period:

  • 7 - 17 days

Transmission Type(s):

Disease Reservoirs

Disease Agents

About Smallpox

Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The pox part of smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted” and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person.

George Henry Fox - Fox, George Henry (1886) Photographic illustrations of skin diseases (2nd ed.), E.B. Treat

George Henry Fox – Fox, George Henry (1886) Photographic illustrations of skin diseases (2nd ed.), E.B. Treat

There are two clinical forms of smallpox. Variola major is the severe and most common form of smallpox, with a more extensive rash and higher fever. There are four types of variola major smallpox: ordinary (the most frequent type, accounting for 90% or more of cases); modified (mild and occurring in previously vaccinated persons); flat; and hemorrhagic (both rare and very severe). Historically, variola major has an overall fatality rate of about 30%; however, flat and hemorrhagic smallpox usually are fatal. Variola minor is a less common presentation of smallpox, and a much less severe disease, with death rates historically of 1% or less.

Smallpox outbreaks have occurred from time to time for thousands of years, but the disease is now eradicated after a successful worldwide vaccination program. The last case of smallpox in the United States was in 1949. The last naturally occurring case in the world was in Somalia in 1977. After the disease was eliminated from the world, routine vaccination against smallpox among the general public was stopped because it was no longer necessary for prevention.

Read More

Read more about Smallpox at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Website

About the Header Image

George Henry Fox - Fox, George Henry (1886) Photographic illustrations of skin diseases (2nd ed.), E.B. Treat